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International Business library guide

Library terms

This short guide is intended to describe some library terms which may be unfamiliar to you.

1. Abstract / summary

A summary of a longer piece of text often found at the beginning of a journal article.

2. Academic Subject Librarian

Academic Subject Librarians offer support to students with finding print or online resources, referencing and general essay writing advice.

3. Call number / classmark

Books in libraries are organised according to a number system, enabling libraries to shelve books on the same subject together. The call number or classmark is a combination of letters and numbers appearing like: 658.4 mul.

4. Catalogue

The Library Catalogue is an electronic searchable list of all items available in the Library (including ebooks). It will let you know how long you can borrow books, if it’s available for loan and the location of the item (classmark) in the Library.

5. Citation

When you refer to another source (e.g. book, journal) in your original piece of work (e.g. essay or dissertation) it is called a citation. This is where you will record the reference details of the source you are using.

6. Classification

The status classification on the Library Catalogue means a book is waiting for a classmark and is not yet on the shelf.

7. Cloud

Computers in the Library which have cloud desktops is where the desktop is stored on the web rather than on the hard drive.

8. Conference papers

Anyone who presents at a conference may wish to publish these in the form of conference papers.


This is legal protection given to any person who creates certain kinds of materials, including books, journal articles and computer programs. Copyright limits the amount of photocopying you can do, if any, from books and journals (e.g. 5% of the whole book, or one chapter).


In a library context, a database is a collection of information which you can search. Often databases focus on a particular subject area and are used to search for journal articles or conference papers. Other databases have alternative functions, like showing financial statements or art graphics.


An ebook is a book which is available in an electronic format.

12.Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing is the main system which the University uses to reference citations, but there are subject exceptions.The Library’s new guide to Harvard Referencing is available on the Library website (

13.Hold / reservation

If you want a book and all copies are out on loan you will need to place a reservation (‘request item’). When the book is returned to the library you will receive an email informing you that the item is ready for collection. Reservations are held on the ground floor of the library in the room just past the main issue desk on the left. In here you will find a shelf marked reservations where your item will be placed under your surname.

14.Inter Library Loan

If you need a book or journal that the library does not have, a copy may be ordered free of charge from the British Library. Details of this service are found on the Library website ( > resources).

15.Journal / periodical

A journal or periodical is a publication which contains different articles written by different authors. Each journal will contain articles relating to a particular subject, and can be named as scholarly, peer-reviewed (see below). Journals are available either as printed (located on the 3rd floor of the Library) or electronic format (see

16.Journal article

Academics write the results of their research as journal articles (also known as research papers). Within journals other kinds of writing exist such as editorials, reviews of other people’s research, and letters.

17.Learning Development

During your studies you will produce many written assignments. Learning Development offers advice on how to tackle your assignments, either through workshops on the Library website ( or via the drop-in sessions held from Monday – Friday on the ground floor of the Library.

18.Peer reviewed / scholarly publications

This is a process where a panel of experts in a particular subject will evaluate the research in an article before it is published to check its reliability.


Plagiarism is when a student copies someone else’s work and does not acknowledge that source thus pretending it is their own work. The University uses an anti-plagiarism detection service called TurnitinUK via Blackboard.


Refworks is referencing software designed to help you gather, manage, store and share information, as well as generating citations and bibliographies. For help with using this software, contact your Academic Subject Librarian, or email