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Harvard referencing handbook (2nd edition)

The University of Lincoln Harvard referencing style

Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising

You need to give an in-text citation whenever you quote, paraphrase or summarise an information source.

Click on the options below for more information.

Quoting is copying a short section of text, word for word, directly from an information source into your work. 

1.  Short quotes should:

  • have double quotation marks at the beginning and end of the text
  • be followed with the in-text citation
  • have ellipses (...) if you omit part of the text.

An example of a short quotation: has frequently been identified that "the search for unattainable perfect could mean missing deadlines" (Williams and Reid, 2011, 94).  The implication of this is...​

2. Long quotations are generally longer than two lines.  You should:

  • start the quotation on a new line
  • indent the quotation
  • follow the quotation with the in-text citation
  • start your analysis of the quotation on a new line

An example of a long quotation:

When discussing your findings it is essential that you follow a pattern:

"The important point to remember is that in your review you should present a logical argument...justifying both the need for work and the methodology that is going to be used" (Ridley, 2012, 100).

Without this structure you will struggle to...

Paraphrasing is when you put a short section of text from an information source into your own words.  Although the words are your own, you are still using ideas from the original text.  You must acknowledge the source with an in-text citation.

Summarising gives a broad overview of an information source.  It describes the main ideas in your own words.  You must acknowledge the source with an in-text citation.