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Libraries and Learning Skills

Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

Library support for the APA award, PG certificate in Higher Education and Fellowship applications

English Skills


The English punctuation system has evolved in tandem with the traditions of writing and printing. Some elements of punctuation go back to medieval manuscripts, but their shapes and uses varied until well into C17, and were formalized only in C18. The contribution of space to the punctuation system(e.g. word space, space between sentences) has only recently been recognized. The punctuation marks which appear in modern English are as follows:∗for sentence punctuation brackets/parentheses colon comma ellipsis em rule / em dashen rule / en dash exclamation mark full stop / period question mark quotation marks semicolon

∗for word punctuation acute apostrophe cedilla circumflex dieresis grave hacek hyphen solidus/slash tilde umlaut

Peters, P. (2004) The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at: (Accessed: 1 April 2022).



Past, present and future tense

Word grammar: