For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.
The following format will be used:
In-text citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words. For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue.
In-text citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote.
References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.
Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the APA Manual (6th ed.).
Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.
If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference. You will not have to include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
Can't see the DOI for the article you have found?
1. If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a Google search (using the journal title) to obtain the URL for the journal's home page. This information must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article.
2. If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.
For more information on DOIs and sample pictures indicating where to locate a DOI on a source: