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APA 6th Edition - University of Lincoln

Referencing system for Psychology

Basic citation format

 

Type of citation

First citation in text

Subsequent citations in text

Bracketed format, first citation in text

Bracketed format, subsequent citations in text

One work by one author

Fry (2009)

Fry (2009)

(Fry, 2009)

(Fry, 2009)

One work by two authors

Fry and Jacklin (2009)

Fry and Jacklin (2009)

(Fry & Jacklin, 2009)

(Fry & Jacklin, 2009)

One work by three authors

Fry, Jacklin and Jones (2009)

Fry et al. (2009)

(Fry, Jacklin, & Jones, 2009)

(Fry et al., 2009)

One work by four authors

Fry, Jacklin, Pratt and Jones (2009)

Fry et al. (2009)

(Fry, Jacklin, Pratt & Jones, 2009)

(Fry et al., 2009)

One work by five authors

Fry, Jacklin, Pratt, Jones and Peters (2009)

Fry et al. (2009)

(Fry, Jacklin, Pratt, Jones & Peters, 2009)

(Fry et al., 2009)

One work by six or more authors

Jacklin et al. (2013)

Jacklin et al. (2013)

(Jacklin et al., 2013)

(Jacklin et al., 2013)

Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors

British Psychological Society (BPS, 2013)

BPS (2013)

(British Psychological Society [BPS], 2013)

(BPS, 2013)

Groups (no abbreviation)

University of Lincoln (2012)

University of Lincoln (2012)

(University of Lincoln, 2012)

(University of Lincoln, 2012)

 

Common citation queries

How to cite sources with no author

When a work has no author, cite in the text the first few words of the Reference List entry, usually the title and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicise the title of a journal, book, brochure, webpage or report.

For example:

Vaccine has revolutionised healthcare ("New Child Vaccine," 2001).

How to cite multiple authors

When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs. When a work has three to five authors, cite all the names the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. When a work has six plus authors, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. every time the reference occurs in the text.  The following table illustrates the citation styles.

Note: Use last names only unless there are different authors with the same last name; in this case, use the initials of the different authors in addition to the last name.

 

 

 

Example assignment

The following is an example of the first page of an assignment to highlight the ways in which in-text citations can be used within paraphrased text.

 

Can sport be used as a tool to improve the self-esteem, behaviour and social skills in children with ‘hidden disabilities’?

 

Sport has the power to overcome many problems faced by children with ‘hidden disabilities’ such as autism and ADHD and to overcome issues with self-esteem, behaviour or social skills.  When working with a child with a hidden disability coaches and teachers may not be able to initially see the difficulties faced by a child because, on the surface, they appear to be the same as all the other children.  The aim of this assignment is to examine how behaviours, such as aggression, can be managed in these children in order to improve their social skills and prevent them from being disinterested in, or excluded from, sporting activities outside of the educational setting.

The physical characteristics of some disabilities may not be obvious to the casual observer and are therefore ‘hidden’. (Bodey, 2010).  In her research, Bodey (2010) found that children in this situation are often well-known in the educational setting and their teachers have had training, resources and support.  In contrast, coaches in the sport setting have not always received the same level of knowledge to give them the understanding needed to support the child.

Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) all have a broad spectrum of ability and outward presentation so it is important for practitioners to firstly understand the child, and secondly, employ strategies to engage and retain them.  Braune and Braune (2015) suggest that there has been very little focus in the literature on the impact of these disabilities on children within the sport setting and that issues which occur are often misinterpreted as bad behaviour, defiance and lack of motivation.  They also discuss ways in which sports practitioners can promote positive sport experiences and utilise various strategies and techniques. 

With a focus on ASD, Guest, Balogh, Dogra and Lloyd (2017) examined the impact of a multi-sport camp on 13 girls with ASD between the ages of 8-11 with the aim of improving motor skills, physical self-perceptions and social skills.  The girls were identified as having ASD but Guest et al (2017) also specified some additional exclusion criteria which included aggressive behaviour.