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Libraries and Learning Skills

APA 6th Edition - University of Lincoln

Referencing system for Psychology

Journal articles with three to five authors

In-text citation (Paraphrase with the author(s) in the sentence)

Roberts, Lejuez, Krueger, Richards and Hill (2009) identify that…

Note: Subsequent citations for articles with three to five authors only require the first author’s surname – e.g. (Roberts et al., 2009) or Roberts et al. (2009).


In-text citation (Quotation)

(Roberts, Lejuez, Krueger, Richards & Hill, 2009, p. 1320)


Reference list


Roberts, B. W., Lejuez, C., Krueger, R. F., Richards, J. M., & Hill, P. L. (2009). What is

       conscientiousness and how can it be assessed? Developmental Psychology, 50(5),

       1315-1330. https://doi:10.1037/a0031109



Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s).

       (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page numbers

       (without page abbreviations). https://doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL

       of journal home page [if available]


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference.  You will not have to include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.

Can't see the DOI for the article you have found?

1. If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a Google search (using the journal title) to obtain the URL for the journal's home page.  This information must be included in the reference.  If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article.

2. If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed.  If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

 For more information on DOIs and sample pictures indicating where to locate a DOI on a source: