See also the guidance on the APA's Style website on referencing journal articles at:
And the journals section in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ( pp. 316-321).
For each type of source in this guide there is a parenthetical citation example (when the author and the date are in brackets after the source used) and a narrative citation (where the author's surname is in the body of the text and the date is in brackets).
There is also an example of the reference list entry for each journal article type.
Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the APA Publication Manual (7th ed.).
If there is no DOI, provide a URL for articles which are not from a university database. Do not include database URLs for articles obtained from most academic research databases because works in these resources are widely available and aren’t restricted to one database.
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet.
If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source it must be included in the reference. Because so much scholarship is available or retrievable online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL.
DOIs should always be displayed as a full URL link in the form https://doi.org/10.xxx/xxx
For example: https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104511404364
DOIs are typically found on the overview page for the article or book chapter on the publisher's page.
If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
You can use CrossRef.org to look up an article and find the DOI. Copy the title of the article into the search box on the website, click the Search Metadata option and, if there is a DOI, it will be listed in the first page of the results (usually the first or second entry).
Alexis Lamb (firstname.lastname@example.org) and
(Academic Subject Librarian for Psychology and Sport)
Subject guides available at:
Tracey Newby (email@example.com)
(Academic Subject Librarian for Education)
Subject guide available at: