Skip to Main Content

APA 7th Edition - University of Lincoln

Personal communication

Do not include personal communication in your reference list as this type of information is not considered ‘recoverable’ by readers. Personal communication includes emails, text messages, online chats, personal interviews, telephone conversations, letters, etc.  

Personal communications are therefore cited in the text only.  Provide the communicator’s initial(s) and surname and provide an exact a date as possible.  

Personal communications

In-text citation 

Parethetical citation

 (C. Byers, personal communication, February 7, 2020)  


Narrative citation 

T. Garcia (personal communication, August 4, 2019)